Rare Hematology News

Disease Profile

Shigellosis

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

All ages

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ICD-10

A03.0 A03.1 A03.2 A03.3 A03.8 A03.9

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Categories

Bacterial infections

Summary

Shigellosis is a disease caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella. Shigella is very contagious. Shigella germs are present in the stools of infected individuals for up to two weeks after symptoms have resolved. Individuals may be exposed through direct contact with an infected person or through contaminated food, water (both drinking and recreational water), or surfaces. Though anyone can get shigellosis, young children are most at risk. Symptoms of shigellosis usually begin one to two days after exposure and include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever. In otherwise healthy individuals, the symptoms usually resolve in 5-7 days. Those with mild shigellosis may need only rest and self-care measures to avoid dehydration (drinking fluids and electrolyte solutions). For more severe cases, antibiotics may be prescribed though some cases of shigellosis have been found to be resistant to antibiotics. Laboratory tests can be performed to determine which antibiotics are likely to be effective in an individual case. Most people make a full recovery, though it may take several months for bowel habits to return to normal. Complications are rare but may include post-infectious arthritis, bloodstream infections, seizures, or hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). [1][2]

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Abdominal cramps
0032155
Bloody mucoid diarrhea
0025086
Fever
0001945
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Anorexia
0002039
Asthenia
0025406
Dehydration
0001944
Fatigue
Tired
Tiredness

[ more ]

0012378
Leukocytosis
Elevated white blood count
High white blood count
Increased blood leukocyte number

[ more ]

0001974
Nausea
0002018
Tenesmus
0012702
Vomiting
Throwing up
0002013
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Abscess
0025615
Acute colitis
0100282
Failure to thrive in infancy
Faltering weight in infancy
Weight faltering in infancy

[ more ]

0001531
Febrile seizure (within the age range of 3 months to 6 years)
Fever induced seizures
0002373
Hypoglycemia
Low blood sugar
0001943
Hyponatremia
Low blood sodium levels
0002902
Hypovolemic shock
0031274
Immunodeficiency
Decreased immune function
0002721
Paralytic ileus
0002590
Ulcerative colitis
0100279
1%-4% of people have these symptoms
Acute kidney injury
0001919
Arthritis
Joint inflammation
0001369
Bacteremia
0031864
Cholestasis
Slowed or blocked flow of bile from liver
0001396
Conjunctivitis
Pink eye
0000509
Corneal ulceration
0012804
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome
0005575
Hepatic failure
Liver failure
0001399
Intestinal perforation
0031368
Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
0001937
Myocarditis
Inflammation of heart muscle
0012819
Peripheral neuropathy
0009830
Peritonitis
0002586
Pneumonia
0002090
Purpura
Red or purple spots on the skin
0000979
Rhabdomyolysis
Breakdown of skeletal muscle
0003201
Sepsis
Infection in blood stream
0100806
Splenic abscess
0025059
Thrombocytopenia
Low platelet count
0001873
Urethritis
0500006
Urticaria
Hives
0001025
Uveitis
0000554

Organizations

Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Providing General Support

    Learn more

    These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

    General Information

      In-Depth Information

      • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
      • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.

        References

        1. Shigella – Shigellosis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). August 3, 2016; https://www.cdc.gov/shigella/general-information.html. Accessed 10/5/2016.
        2. Vyas, Jatin. Shigellosis. MedlinePlus. March 13, 2016; https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000295.htm. Accessed 10/5/2016.