Rare Hematology News

Disease Profile

Viral hemorrhagic fever

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

All ages

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ICD-10

-

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Summary

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.
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Orpha Number: 341

Definition
Viral hemorrhagic fever is a group of recently discovered contagious viral infections characterized by severe, multiple, and often fatal hemorrhages. African fevers include Lassa fever discovered in 1969, Marburg's disease that first occurred in 1967, and Ebola fever that appeared in 1976. Other viruses may also cause hemorrhagic fevers (for example, arbovirus fever).

Clinical description
Regarding Lassa fever, after a 7-day incubation period, fever and ulcerating hemorrhagic pharyngitis occur, followed by pleuropneumonia. The disease then progresses to either spontaneous cure or to profuse digestive or pulmonary bleeding that leads to death in 35 to 70% of cases. Transmission of Ebola between humans occurs mainly via direct contact with the disease or with infected biological products, rather than by the air-borne route. Clinical manifestations appear after a 4-16 day incubation period, initially with fever, cephalalgia, myalgia and conjunctival suffusion. Digestive symptoms then appear, including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, and are associated with leucothrombocytopenia. The next stage is marked by hemorrhage in the nose, intestines or genitalia. Biological findings include an isolated elevation of transaminases and stigmatas of disseminated intravascular coagulation. The disease is usually fatal within a few days.

Etiology
The reservoir for Lassa fever is a rodent which transmits the virus to humans directly, with no need of a vector. Ebola and Marburg viruses belong to the filoviridae viral family, but their reservoirs remain unknown. The source of the first documented Marburg epidemic was a group of African green monkeys imported from Uganda. Ebola virus causes deadly localized epidemics centered around central Africa.

Management and treatment
Treatment is symptomatic. Secondary prevention within hospital services consists of the total isolation of affected patients. The disease is notifiable.

Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Fatigue
Tired
Tiredness

[ more ]

0012378
Fever
0001945
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Abdominal pain
Pain in stomach
Stomach pain

[ more ]

0002027
Arthralgia
Joint pain
0002829
Chest pain
0100749
Decreased liver function
Liver dysfunction
0001410
Diarrhea
Watery stool
0002014
Epistaxis
Bloody nose
Frequent nosebleeds
Nose bleed
Nose bleeding
Nosebleed

[ more ]

0000421
Gastrointestinal hemorrhage
Gastrointestinal bleeding
0002239
Gingival bleeding
Bleeding gums
0000225
Leukopenia
Decreased blood leukocyte number
Low white blood cell count

[ more ]

0001882
Migraine
Intermittent migraine headaches
Migraine headache
Migraine headaches

[ more ]

0002076
Myalgia
Muscle ache
Muscle pain

[ more ]

0003326
Nausea and vomiting
0002017
Skin rash
0000988
Spontaneous abortion
0005268
Subcutaneous hemorrhage
Bleeding below the skin
0001933
Thrombocytopenia
Low platelet count
0001873
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Encephalitis
Brain inflammation
0002383
Hearing impairment
Deafness
Hearing defect

[ more ]

0000365
Recurrent bronchiolitis
0100501
Reduced consciousness/confusion
Disturbances of consciousness
Lowered consciousness

[ more ]

0004372
Retrobulbar optic neuritis
0100654
Seizure
0001250

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

In-Depth Information

  • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.