Rare Hematology News

Disease Profile


Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

Valine transaminase deficiency; Hypervalinemia


Metabolic disorders


Valinemia is a very rare metabolic disorder characterized by abnormally high levels of the amino acid valine in the blood and urine. Infants with valinemia reportedly experience lack of appetite, vomiting, and failure to thrive. In some cases, the condition may be life-threatening. Low muscle tone (hypotonia), excessive drowsiness, hyperactivity, and developmental delay have also been reported. Valinemia is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme valine transaminase, which is needed for the breakdown (metabolism) of valine in the body. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, although the gene responsible for the condition is not yet known. Treatment includes a diet low in valine (introduced during early infancy) which usually improves symptoms and brings valine levels to normal.[1]


Valinemia is thought to be extremely rare and has been described in only a few people. The condition is reportedly present from birth. Symptoms in the newborn period include lack of appetite, protein intolerance, metabolic acidosis, frequent vomiting, failure to thrive, and/or coma. The condition can become life-threatening. Abnormally low muscle tone (hypotonia); hyperkinesia; hyperactivity; excessive drowsiness; and delayed mental and physical development have also been reported.[1][2]

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Autosomal recessive inheritance
Failure to thrive
Faltering weight
Weight faltering

[ more ]

Hyperkinetic movements
Muscle spasms
High blood valine concentration
Muscle weakness
Muscular weakness
Throwing up


Due to the rarity of valinemia, information about treatment in the medical literature is very limited. A diet low in valine introduced during early infancy is thought to improve symptoms of the condition and lower valine concentrations in the blood to normal levels.[1]


Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Learn more

    These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

    Where to Start

    • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.

      In-Depth Information

      • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
      • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
      • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Valinemia. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.


        1. Valinemia. NORD. September 17, 2007; https://rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/627/viewAbstract. Accessed 11/19/2014.
        2. Keiya Tada, yoichi Matsubara. Hypervalinemia. Encyclopedia of Molecular Mechanisms of Disease. 2009; 958. Accessed 11/19/2014.

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