Rare Hematology News

Disease Profile

Tularemia

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
1-9 / 100 000

3,310 - 29,790

US Estimated

1-9 / 100 000

5,135 - 46,215

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

All ages

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ICD-10

A21.0 A21.1 A21.2 A21.3 A21.7 A21.8 A21.9

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

Francisella tularensis infection; Deerfly fever; Rabbit fever;

Categories

Bacterial infections

Summary

Tularemia is an infection caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. It is more common in rodents and rabbits but has been found in other animals including domestic cats, sheep, birds, and hamsters. Humans can become infected in several different ways: by handling infected animals, through tick or deer fly bites, by drinking contaminated water, or by inhaling contaminated dust or aerosols. [1][2][3] Person-to-person transmission has not been reported.[2] The type of tularemia and the particular signs and symptoms vary depending on how the bacteria enter the body. However, fever is seen in most cases.[3][4] Though tularemia can be life-threatening, most infections can be treated with antibiotics.[1]

Symptoms

The symptoms of tularemia usually appear 3 to 5 days after exposure, but can take as long as 14 days to appear. Symptoms may include:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Headache
  • Diarrhea
  • Muscle pains
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Joint pain
  • Dry cough
  • Fatigue
  • Skin rash
  • Progressive weakness

Symptoms vary depending on the way the bacteria enter the body. Additional signs and symptoms may include pneumonia, ulcers on the skin or mouth, swollen eyes, and a sore throat.[5][6]

Treatment

Antibiotics used to treat tularemia include streptomycin, gentamicin, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin. Treatment usually lasts 10 to 21 days. Although symptoms may last for several weeks, most treated patients make a full recovery.[7][8] Untreated tularemia infections are fatal in 5-15% of cases.[6]

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

  • You can obtain information on this topic from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC is recognized as the lead federal agency for developing and applying disease prevention and control, environmental health, and health promotion and education activities designed to improve the health of the people of the United States.
  • MedlinePlus was designed by the National Library of Medicine to help you research your health questions, and it provides more information about this topic.
  • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.

In-Depth Information

  • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Tularemia. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

References

  1. Tularemia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sept, 2016; https://www.cdc.gov/tularemia/index.html.
  2. Tularemia Transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). October, 2015; https://www.cdc.gov/tularemia/transmission/index.html.
  3. Tularemia. The Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. July, 2015; https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/tularemia/basics/definition/con-20028009.
  4. Tularemia Signs and Symptoms. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). October, 2015; https://www.cdc.gov/tularemia/signssymptoms/index.html.
  5. Tularemia: Frequently Asked Questions. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). October, 2015; https://www.cdc.gov/tularemia/faq/index.html.
  6. Cleveland, Kerry. Tularemia. Medscape. Feb. 29, 2016; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/230923-overview.
  7. Tularemia: Diagnosis and Treatment. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). October, 2016; https://www.cdc.gov/tularemia/diagnosistreatment/index.html.
  8. Bush, Larry. Tularemia. Merck Manual Consumer Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/infections/bacterial-infections/tularemia. Accessed 10/3/2017.

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