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Disease Profile

Central congenital hypothyroidism

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

-

ICD-10

E03.1

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

Secondary hypothyroidism

Summary

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.
orphanet

Orpha Number: 226298

Definition
Central or secondary congenital hypothyroidism is a type of permanent congenital hypothyroidism (see this term) characterized by permanent thyroid hormone deficiency that is present from birth and secondary to a disorder in the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) system.

Epidemiology
Prevalence is unknown.

Clinical description
The clinical manifestations are often subtle, probably as a result of trans-placental passage of some maternal thyroid hormone or due to the fact that many infants have some thyroid production of their own. More specific symptoms and signs often do not develop until several months of age. Common clinical features and signs include decreased activity and increased sleep, feeding difficulty and constipation, prolonged jaundice, myxedematous facies, large fontanels (especially posterior), macroglossia, a distended abdomen with umbilical hernia, and hypotonia. Goiter is always absent. Slow linear growth and developmental delay are usually apparent by 4-6 months of age. Without treatment central hypothyroidism results in intellectual deficit and short stature.

Etiology
Central hypothyroidism usually results from defects of TSH production and is often part of a disorder causing congenital hypopituitarism (see this term), in which case the clinical signs may also include septo-optic dysplasia or cleft lip and/or palate as well as other signs of hypopituitarism, or part of a larger genetic syndrome such as pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (see this term). Mutations in genes regulating pituitary gland development including HESX1, LHX3, LHX4, POU1F1 and PROP1 (3p21.2-p21.1, 9q34.3, 1q25, 3p11 and 5q) may also cause central hypothyroidism. Central hypothyroidism may also result from isolated TSH deficiency (see this term), which is transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner and is caused by mutations in the TSHB subunit gene (1p13), or from TRH resistance (see this term) caused by mutations in the TRH receptor gene (TRHR; 8q23).

Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Abdominal distention
Abdominal bloating
Abdominal swelling
Belly bloating
Bloating

[ more ]

0003270
Abnormal fingernail morphology
Abnormal fingernails
Abnormality of the fingernails

[ more ]

0001231
Coarse facial features
Coarse facial appearance
0000280
Constipation
0002019
Dry skin
0000958
Fatigue
Tired
Tiredness

[ more ]

0012378
Feeding difficulties
Feeding problems
Poor feeding

[ more ]

0011968
Hoarse cry
0001615
Jaundice
Yellow skin
Yellowing of the skin

[ more ]

0000952
Large fontanelles
Wide fontanelles
0000239
Macroglossia
Abnormally large tongue
Increased size of tongue
Large tongue

[ more ]

0000158
Muscular hypotonia
Low or weak muscle tone
0001252
Sleep disturbance
Difficulty sleeping
Trouble sleeping

[ more ]

0002360
Umbilical hernia
0001537
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Abnormal eyebrow morphology
Abnormality of the eyebrow
0000534
Abnormality of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis
0000864
Central hypothyroidism
0011787
Cleft palate
Cleft roof of mouth
0000175
Delayed speech and language development
Deficiency of speech development
Delayed language development
Delayed speech
Delayed speech acquisition
Delayed speech development
Impaired speech and language development
Impaired speech development
Language delay
Language delayed
Language development deficit
Late-onset speech development
Poor language development
Speech and language delay
Speech and language difficulties
Speech delay

[ more ]

0000750
Depressivity
Depression
0000716
Septo-optic dysplasia
0100842

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

In-Depth Information

  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.