Rare Hematology News

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, acquired

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Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), acquired is a blood disorder characterized by low platelets (i.e., thrombocytopenia), small areas of bleeding under the skin (i.e., purpura), low red blood cell count, and hemolytic anemia. TTP causes blood clots (thrombi) to form in small blood vessels throughout the body. These clots can cause serious medical problems if they…

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Brachydactyly absence of distal phalanges

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Infantile axonal neuropathy

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Brain stem cancer

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X-linked intellectual disability, Najm type

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 163937 Definition Najm type X-linked intellectual deficit is a rare cerebellar dysgenesis syndrome characterized by variable clinical manifestations ranging from mild intellectual deficit with or without congenital nystagmus, to severe cognitive impairment associated with cerebellar…

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Bronchial adenomas/carcinoids childhood

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IQSEC2

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IQSEC2 is a genetic condition that causes intellectual disability and sometimes other physical, neurological, or psychiatric symptoms.[1] People with this condition can have seizures that are often difficult to control with medications. Other symptoms may include motor and language development delay, regression of learning abilities, autistic-like behavior, characteristic hand movements, and behavioral problems. Physical features…

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Ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 455 Definition Superficial epidermolytic ichthyosis (SEI) is a rare keratinopathic ichthyosis (KI; see this term) characterized by the presence of superficial blisters and erosions at birth. Epidemiology Less than 30 families have been reported in…

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Laryngeal papillomatosis

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Laryngeal papillomatosis is a form of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis where tumors (papillomas) grow in the larynx (voice box).[1] Symptoms usually begin with hoarseness and/or a change in the voice. Some people may experience difficulty breathing (dyspnea) and/or experience other life-threatening complications if the papillomas block the airway.[2] The tumors may vary in size and grow very quickly. They often…

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Chondrocalcinosis 2

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Chondrocalcinosis 2 is a rare disease characterized by the accumulation of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPP) crystals in and around the joints. A buildup of these crystals can lead to joint pain and damage that is progressive (worsens over time).[1][2] Signs and symptoms of the disease include chronic joint pain or sudden, recurrent episodes of pain, as well…

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Kawasaki disease

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?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags” /Kawasaki disease is a disease that involves inflammation of the blood vessels. It is typically diagnosed in young children, but older children and adults can also develop this condition. Kawasaki disease begins with a fever that lasts at least five days. Other classic symptoms may include red eyes, lips, and mouth; rash; swollen…

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Supraglottic laryngeal cancer

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Segmentation syndrome 1

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MOGS-CDG (CDG-IIb)

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 79330 Definition MOGS-CDG is a form of congenital disorders of N-linked glycosylation characterized by generalized hypotonia, craniofacial dysmorphism (prominent occiput, short palpebral fissures, long eyelashes, broad nose, high arched palate , retrognathia), hypoplastic genitalia, seizures,…

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Lactic acidosis congenital infantile

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Cardiac-Valvular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 230851 Definition Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, cardiac valvular type is a form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome characterized by soft skin, skin hyperextensibility, easy bruisability, atrophic scar formation, joint hypermobility and cardiac valvular defects comprising mitral and/or aortic valve…

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Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 deficiency

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Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2) deficiency is a condition that prevents the body from using certain fats for energy, particularly during periods without food (fasting). There are three main types of CPT2 deficiency: a lethal neonatal form, a severe infantile hepatocardiomuscular form, and a myopathic form.[1] The neonatal and infantile forms are severe multisystemic diseases characterized by liver failure…

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Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating 3

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Cataract, posterior polar, 3

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Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome

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Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS syndrome) is a genetic condition that affects the eyes and skin. It is mainly found in females and is characterized by small or poorly developed eyes (microphthalmia) and characteristic linear skin markings on the head and neck.[1][2] The signs and symptoms of this condition may include abnormalities of…

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Chondrocalcinosis 1

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Cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis, and palmoplantar keratoderma syndrome

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 66631 Definition CEDNIK syndrome is a neurocutaneaous syndrome characterized by severe developmental abnormalities of the nervous system and aberrant differentiation of the epidermis. Epidemiology It has been described so far in seven affected individuals (four…

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Lymphedema, microcephaly and chorioretinopathy syndrome

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Periventricular heterotopia

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Periventricular heterotopia is a condition in which the nerve cells (neurons) do not migrate properly during early development of the fetal brain. People with this condition typically develop recurrent seizures (epilepsy) beginning in mid-adolescence.[1] Intelligence is usually normal, but some people may have mild intellectual disability, including difficulty with reading or spelling. Less common features…

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Cerebellar hypoplasia tapetoretinal degeneration

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Q04.3

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 2246 Definition Cerebellar hypoplasia-tapetoretinal degeneration syndrome is a rare syndrome with a cerebellar malformation as a major feature characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia, bilateral retinal pigmentary changes, intellectual disability that can range from mild to moderate…

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Macrophagic myofasciitis

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Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 2

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 94090 Definition Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 2 (PHP2) is a type of pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP; see this term) characterized by resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH), which manifests with hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and elevated PTH levels, absence of Albright’s hereditary…

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Cerebrocostomandibular-like syndrome

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Phyllodes tumor of the prostate

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Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1E

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Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1E (CMT1E) is a form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, which is a group of rare conditions that affect the peripheral nerves. Signs and symptoms of CMT1E generally become apparent between age 5 and 25 years, although the age of onset and disease severity can vary significantly from person to person. In general, CMT1E…

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Methionine adenosyltransferase deficiency

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E72.1

Methionine adenosyltransferase deficiency is a very rare metabolic disorder resulting in an isolated increase of the amino acid methionine in the blood (hypermethioninemia). In most cases there are no symptoms and it is usually a benign condition, but some patients may present with neurologic or developmental problems and/or bad breath. It is caused by mutations…

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Polydactyly postaxial dental and vertebral

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Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer of the blood and bone marrow, and the most common type of cancer in children. In children with this condition, too many stem cells made by the bone marrow become lymphoblasts, B lymphocytes, or T lymphocytes. These cells do not function normally and have trouble…

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Medrano Roldan syndrome

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Chondrodysplasia calcificans metaphysealis

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Meningocele

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Infantile choroidocerebral calcification syndrome

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 1313 Definition This syndrome is characterized by intellectual deficit, calcification of the choroid plexus, and elevated levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein. It has been described in two sibships from two unrelated families. The seven…

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Metatropic dysplasia

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Metatropic dysplasia is a skeletal disorder characterized by short stature, shortened arms and legs, and a long narrow chest. The signs and symptoms of this condition can vary from life threatening to mild. Signs and symptoms may include worsening abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis and kyphosis), flattening of the bones of the spine (platyspondyly),…

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Pulmonary valves agenesis

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Chromosome 13q duplication

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Chromosome 13q duplication is a chromosome abnormality that occurs when there is an extra (duplicated) copy of genetic material on the long arm (q) of chromosome 13. The severity of the condition and the signs and symptoms depend on the size and location of the duplication and which genes are involved. Features that often occur in…

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Omodysplasia 1

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Recurrent peripheral facial palsy

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Chromosome 17q deletion

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 1597 Definition A partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 17 characterized by hypotonia, growth delay, severe global developmental delay, microcephaly, seizures, congenital heart anomalies, hand and foot anomalies (syndactyly, symphalangism) and dysmorphic facial…

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Mitral valve prolapse, familial, autosomal dominant

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Rheumatoid nodulosis

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Chromosome 1q41-q42 deletion syndrome

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Chromosome 1q41-q42 deletion syndrome is characterized by a small, but variable deletion in a particular place on the long arm of one copy of chromosome 1, usually spanning several genes. There have been variable features described in the literature, and individuals have ranged from being mildly to severely affected.[1][2] Features may include poor feeding in infancy; developmental delay including…

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Mosaic trisomy 8

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Mosaic trisomy 8 is a chromosomal abnormality that can affect many parts of the body. In individuals with mosaic trisomy 8, some of the body’s cells have three copies of chromosome 8 (trisomy), while other cells have the usual two copies of this chromosome. The signs and symptoms vary, but may include distinctive facial features; intellectual disability;…

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Sudden Arrhythmia Death Syndrome

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Chromosome 5, uniparental disomy

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Multiple pterygium syndrome X-linked

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 79447 Definition X-linked lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is a rare, genetic, developmental defect during embryogenesis characterized by the typical lethal multiple pterygium syndrome presentation (comprising of multiple pterygia, severe arthrogryposis, cleft palate, cystic hygromata and/or…

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Spinocerebellar ataxia 31

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 217012 Definition An autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type III that is characterized by the late-onset of ataxia, dysarthria and horizontal gaze nystagmus, and that is occasionally accompanied by pyramidal signs, tremor, decreased vibration sense and…

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Chromosome 9p deletion

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Chromosome 9p deletion is a chromosome abnormality that occurs when there is a missing (deleted) copy of genetic material on the short arm (p) of chromosome 9. The severity and the signs and symptoms depend on the size and location of the deletion and which genes are involved. Features may affect many parts of the body and may include…

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Myopathy, limb-girdle, with bone fragility

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Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita

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Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita is an inherited disorder of bone growth that affects the bones of the spine and ends of the long bones in the arms and legs. Features of this condition include short stature (dwarfism); a very short trunk and neck; abnormal curvature of the spine; barrel-shaped chest; shortened limbs; an abnormality of the…

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Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis

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Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a condition that affects different parts of the body, particularly the skin. Symptoms of the condition may include progressive swelling and tightening of the skin, sometimes resulting in contractures, and pruritis (itching). The skin findings are similar to those seen in patients with scleroderma. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis was first described in 1997.[1] Being exposed to gadolinium-containing contrast…

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Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency

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Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) is a liver condition is also known as neonatal-onset type II citrullinemia. NICCD blocks the flow of bile (a digestive fluid produced by the liver) and prevents the body from processing certain nutrients properly. This leads to transient intrahepatic cholestasis and variable liver dysfunction in children younger than one year of…

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Nevus comedonicus syndrome

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 64754 Definition A rare, syndromic nevus characterized by the association of typically unilateral, closely arranged, linear, slightly elevated, multiple, nevus comedonicus lesions located usually on the face, neck, trunk or limbs (with or without a…

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Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia short limb-hand type

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 93358 Definition Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia-short limb-abnormal calcification syndrome is a rare, genetic primary bone dysplasia disorder characterized by disproportionate short stature with shortening of upper and lower limbs, short and broad fingers with short hands, narrowed…

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Cleft palate lateral synechia syndrome

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Nystagmus, congenital motor, autosomal recessive

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Spirurida Infections

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RNAse T2-deficient leukoencephalopathy

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 85136 Definition Cystic leukoencephalopathy without megalencephaly is characterised by non-progressive leukoencephalopathy, bilateral cysts in the anterior part of the temporal lobe, cerebral white matter anomalies and severe psychomotor impairment. Less than 50 patients have been…

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Orofaciodigital syndrome 9

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 141007 Definition Oral-facial-digital syndrome, type 9 is characterized by highly arched palate with bifid tongue and bilateral supernumerary lower canines, hamartomatous tongue, multiple frenula, hypertelorism, telecanthus, strabismus, broad and/or bifid nasal tip, short stature, bifid…

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Subependymal nodular heterotopia

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Cone-rod dystrophy X-linked 1

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Osteoporosis oculocutaneous hypopigmentation syndrome

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 2786 Definition Osteoporosis-oculocutaneous hypopigmentation syndrome is characterised by osteoporosis and congenital oculocutaneous hypopigmentation. Three cases have been described in the literature. The mode of inheritance appears to be autosomal recessive. Visit the Orphanet disease page…

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Taurodontism, microdontia, and dens invaginatus

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Colver Steer Godman syndrome

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Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 79102 Definition Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a rare neurological disease characterized by recurrent episodes of paralysis and hypokalemia during a thyrotoxic state. Epidemiology It is most common in Asian males (with male-to-female ratios ranging…

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Craniotelencephalic dysplasia

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 1528 Definition Craniotelencephalic dysplasia is an extremely rare, genetic developmental defect during embryogenesis syndrome characterized by craniosynostosis with frontal encephalocele and various additional brain anomalies (severe hydrocephalus, agenesis of the corpus callosum, lissencephaly and polymicrogyria,…

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WDHA syndrome

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Trisomy 11 mosaicism

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Congenital benign spinal muscular atrophy dominant

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Partial deletion of Y

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VACTERL association

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VACTERL association is a non-random association of birth defects that affects multiple parts of the body. The term VACTERL is an acronym with each letter representing the first letter of one of the more common findings seen in affected individuals: (V) = vertebral abnormalities; (A) = anal atresia; (C) = cardiac (heart) defects; (T) = tracheal…

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Sprengel deformity

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Sprengel deformity is a congenital condition characterized by abnormal development and elevation of the shoulder blade (scapula).[1] Severity can range considerably from being almost invisible when covered with clothes, to the shoulder being elevated over 5 centimeters, with neck webbing.[2] Signs and symptoms may include a lump in the back of the base of the…

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Weaver Williams syndrome

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Intrinsic factor deficiency

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Intrinsic factor deficiency is a rare condition that is characterized by pernicious anemia and neurological abnormalities. Most affected people develop signs and symptoms of the condition before age 5 years which may include failure to thrive and symptoms related to anemia (i.e. fatigue, pale skin, etc). Without early diagnosis and treatment, nervous system damage may…

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Pachyonychia congenita

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Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare inherited condition that primarily affects the nails and skin. The fingernails and toenails may be thickened and abnormally shaped. Affected people can also develop painful calluses and blisters on the soles of their feet and less frequently on the palms of their hands (palmoplantar keratoderma). Additional features include white patches on the tongue and inside of the…

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Supranuclear ocular palsy

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Rutherfurd syndrome

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 2709 Definition Oculodental syndrome, Rutherfurd type is a rare genetic disorder that is primarily characterized by the classical triad of gingival fibromatosis, non-eruption of tooth and corneal dystrophy (bilateral corneal vascularization and opacity). Abnormally shaped…

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Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

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Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) occurs when blood supply to the ball of the thighbone in the hip (femoral head) is disrupted. Without an adequate blood supply, the bone cells die.[1] LCPD usually occurs in children between the ages of 4 and 10.[2] Early symptoms may include limping; pain in the hip, thigh or knee; and reduced range of…

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Craniosynostosis arthrogryposis cleft palate

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Hairy elbows

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 2220 Definition Hypertrichosis cubiti is a rare hair anomaly characterized by symmetrical, congenital or early-onset, bilateral hypertrychosis localized on the externsor surfaces of the upper extremities (especially the elbows). Short stature, or other abnormalities, such…

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Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 178540 Definition A rare, indolent primary cutaneous Bcell lymphoma characterized by a solitary or grouped erythematous plaques or tumors, preferentially located on the head, neck or trunk region, and composed of centroblasts and centrocytes arranged…

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Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

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Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe, respiratory disease caused by infection with a hantavirus. People can become infected with a hantavirus through contact with hantavirus-infected rodents or their saliva, urine and/or droppings. Early symptoms universally include fatigue, fever and muscle aches (especially in the thighs, hips, and/or back), and sometimes include headaches, dizziness, chills,…

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Cutaneous-skeletal hypophosphatemia syndrome

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Cutaneous-skeletal hypophosphatemia syndrome (CSHS) is a rare condition that primarily affects the bones and skin. People with this condition have skeletal dysplasia and a variety of skin abnormalities such as epidermal nevi (an overgrowth of the top layer of skin) and moles. Other common features include hypophosphatemia which can be associated with bone pain, limb…

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Hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis

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Hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis (HCHWA) is a neurological condition in which an abnormal protein (amyloid) builds up in the walls of the arteries of the brain (and less frequently, veins). This process is known as amyloid deposition, which can lead to strokes, seizures, neurological deficits, cognitive decline, and dementia. Symptoms usually present before the 5th…

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Cystic hygroma

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A cystic hygroma is a fluid-filled sac that results from a blockage in the lymphatic system. It is most commonly located in the neck or head area, but can be located anywhere in the body. It may be discovered in a fetus during a pregnancy ultrasound, or it may be apparent at birth as a soft bulge…

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Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with hypothyroidism and ciliary dyskinesia

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Q82.4

Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with hypothyroidism and ciliary dyskinesia is a rare condition characterized by alopecia (hair loss); nail dystrophy (abnormal development of the nails); ophthalmic (eye-related) complications; thyroid dysfunction (primary hypothyroidism); hypohidrosis; ephelides (freckles); enteropathy (disease of the intestine); and respiratory tract infections due to ciliary dyskinesia.[1] These features have lead to the acronym ANOTHER syndrome…

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Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome

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Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome (DTDS) is a rare movement disorder that causes progressive (worsening) dystonia and parkinsonism. It usually begins in infancy (‘classic DTDS’) and for this reason, it is also known as ‘infantile parkinsonism dystonia.’ However, some people with DTDS may not develop symptoms until childhood or later (which is known as ‘atypical DTDS’).[1][2][3] The dystonia in DTDS…

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Microsomia hemifacial radial defects

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 2549 Definition Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) with radial defects is a rare branchial arches and limb primordia development disorder characterized by variable degrees of unior bilateral craniofacial malformation and radial defects that result in extremely variable…

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Deafness goiter stippled epiphyses

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Abetalipoproteinemia

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E78.6

Abetalipoproteinemia is a very rare condition that affects fat and vitamin absorption by the intestines and liver, leading to very low LDL-cholesterol and malnutrition. Early symptoms of this condition include diarrhea, vomiting, and poor growth. Without treatment, later complications may include muscle weakness, poor night and color vision, tremors, and speech difficulties.[1][2] The long-term outcome can…

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HMG CoA lyase deficiency

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HMG CoA lyase deficiency is an inherited disorder in which the body cannot process a protein called leucine or make ketones. Ketones are used for energy during periods of fasting. The signs and symptoms of condition usually appear within the first year of life and include episodes of vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, extreme tiredness (lethargy), and weak muscle tone…

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Alpha-thalassemia-abnormal morphogenesis

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Episodic ataxia with nystagmus

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 97 Definition Episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) is the most frequent form of Hereditary episodic ataxia (EA; see this term) characterized by paroxysmal episodes of ataxia lasting hours, with interictal nystagmus and mildly progressive ataxia….

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